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Data on Low and Zero Carbon housing from other EU Member States

The following section highlights the level of penetration of low and zero carbon buildings, in Germany, considered to have a similar climate to the UK. In the EU context it is common to refer to these buildings a Near Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB), in relation to the EPBD legislation. A review of progress towards these definitions is presented by D׳Agostino (2015)with a review of a number of EU MS policy roadmaps in Jagemar et al. (2011)


Germany has been considered a lead innovator in the development of low and zero carbon buildings, with 13,000 passivhaus buildings constructed (D׳Agostino, 2015). It also provides the intellectual property and manufacturing base for many of the key technology companies that have been innovators in the sector. Schimschar et al. (2011)quantified the number of buildings constructed to a very high energy performance (VHEP) standard. In the study, they define as VHEPB, those buildings that do not exceed a primary energy demand for new buildings of 40kWh/m2/year and for retrofit of 65kWh/m2/year, as shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1 Cumulated[1] amount of dwellings in VHEPB as from 1999 to 2009 by kind of building performance class.

By the end of 2009, 335,000 VHEP dwellings had been built in Germany. This accounted for approximately 1% of the entire stock in, or 4% of the total number of constructed buildings during 2001-2009, this figure is likely to have risen significantly by the present time.


D׳AGOSTINO, D. 2015. Assessment of the progress towards the establishment of definitions of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs) in European Member States. Journal of Building Engineering, 1, 20-32.

JAGEMAR, L., SCHMIDT, M., ALLARD, F., HEISELBERG, P. & KURNITSKI, J. 2011. Towards nZEB – some examples of national requirements and roadmaps. REHVA Journal, 14-17.

SCHIMSCHAR, S., BLOK, K., BOERMANS, T. & HERMELINK, A. 2011. Germany’s path towards nearly zero-energy buildings—Enabling the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the building stock. Energy Policy, 39, 3346-3360.

[1] P40=primary energy demand of 40 kWh/m2/year, P25=primary energy demand of 25 kWh/m2/year, etc

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